Refractive Errors of Eye & Treatment | आंखों अपवर्तन दोष क्या है?, कारण लक्षण व उपचार? | What are four major types of refractive errors of the eye? | What is the most common refractive error?

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  • 2 years ago
Dr. Rajiv Mirchia

Refractive Errors of Eye | What are different types of refractive error? | How is it corrected? | How serious is a refraction error?

 In this video, Dr. Rajeev Mirchia talks about the different types of refractive error (Refractive Errors of Eye) and it’s corrective surgery. 

What is a refractive error? | Refractive Errors of Eye

This condition is a refractive error when the person cannot see clearly without glasses and can see clearly with glasses. By Refractive error, we mean when there is some deficiency by virtue of which he is not clear with his distance, near, or intermediate vision. And once we correct that with glasses or artificial classes on top, he starts seeing clearly. 

Types of Refractive errors


Refractive errors are of different types, and out of all, the most prominent is myopia. By myopic, we mean that a patient is short-sighted. He can see near-sighted objects clearly but has an unclear distanced vision, or he cannot see things clearly that are far. 

Hyperopia | Refractive Errors of Eye

In hyperopia, patients are usually deficient in both distance and near vision. 


And the third error is Astigmatism. In Astigmatism, either the eyes or the cornea are not global. One axis is bigger than the other, and to compensate for the axis, one needs a small astigmatic number. 


The fourth thing is Presbyopia, when the patient has unclear vision or nearsightedness after age 40. So, various things are required, and one can rectify all of these things. 

The symptoms of refractive errors are unclear vision. To diagnose or if the person feels he has unclear vision, he should visit an ophthalmologist to get a vision check and see if he has any refractive errors. 

How to correct a refractive error? 

All the refractive errors can usually be rectified with proper classes at the appropriate time. 


Children often have myopic errors, but they do not complain or come to know till they go to school or teachers come back and inform the parents that their children can’t copy down from broad. So proper examination is a must. 

In myopic patients, the image so formed is focused in front of the retina rather than on the retina, which is a seeing portion of the eye. And for that reason, we need to give the patient minus glasses. 

By virtue of it, the image shift from front to either back or onto the retina, and the patient starts seeing clearly. 


In hyperopia, either the eyeball is small, and for that, they require a plus number to start seeing things.


In Astigmatism, it can be minus or plus on one axis, as on the other axis, it is usually normal. And they don’t require glasses, so the patient is either myopic or hyper with astigmatism myopic vision. 


So there are different types of combinations. And the last of all is Presbyopia, a normal aging process for all of us. And by the time you reach 40, you all require glasses. 

When do you need corrective glasses? 

If you are trying to stretch your arm to read, it indicates that you need a small number. The number usually starts with .5 diopters, which may increase to 2-3 diopters by the time you grow to 60 years of age from 40. 

It is a relatively easy and fixed rule that everyone will start at 40. Someone may begin at 42 or 45; it is an individual variation, but everyone will require glasses for near work after age 40. And usually, the number increases to 2.5 to 3 diopters by the time you reach 60-65. Unless you have a myopic number or any other number, usually this is the criteria they would start by 40 -45. 

All the refractive errors can be taken care of with the help of proper examination and glasses., There are various methods To get rid of refractive errors. As I said, the first simple way is to get artificial spectacles. The second is by the time the child is 18-17 years of age, the number and the growth are stable; you can think of getting a refractive error corrected by laser technology. 

Modern Surgeries to get rid of glasses 

There are different techniques today; they are very sophisticated, competent, and pain-free. It will not take more than 2-7 minutes, and the patient gets rid of glasses with either LASIK or a laser-like SMILE, a very advanced procedure. 

A healthy diet with lots of vitamin A and other substances like green leafy vegetables does help in the growth of the child and helps in check of their numbers. 

Thank you.

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