Thyroid Nodule(गले में गांठ): Symptoms, Diagnosis, &Treatment

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Dr. Raman Abrol
ENT Specialist / Otorhinolaryngology

Thyroid Nodule(गले में गांठ): Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

In this video, SimpliHealth expert Dr. Raman Abrol is talking about thyroid diseases(thyroid nodule), particularly thyroid nodules or swelling in the neck or mid-line neck. So in this video, he will be discussing thyroid nodules.

What is a thyroid nodule?

It is a small lump often inside the thyroid gland and is more common in females than males. It is mainly related to pregnancy and usually commences at an early age. And the examination of lumps is necessary because, in time, it enlarges so much so that the shape is visible.

Diagnosis of thyroid nodules

We can diagnose this condition in different ways. Hence, a doctor’s examination is necessary. One can self-diagnose these lumps as they move up or down. If you hold this lump and try to swallow something or have a gulp of water, you may observe these lumps. 

Therefore, we can infer that the lump is present inside the thyroid gland. If left untreated, it may get enlarged and bring unavoidable problems.

How can we tackle it further?

Examination 

After examining the mouth and neck, the doctor advises the patient to go for a thyroid ultrasound. By ultrasound, doctors gain information about the size of the nodule and whether it is solid or there is water. Also, it tells us about the number of nodules present. It is  essential to investigate all these things. 

Ultrasound 

If the doctors see fluid or liquid inside nodules, there is a high risk that it could be benign but not cancerous. But it’s unnecessary, so one must opt for a complete diagnosis. Solid nodules with no fluid inside are prone to be more cancerous. Their ultrasound findings are also a bit different from the water-filled nodules.

FNAC 

Further, we do FNAC of solid nodules. We insert a small needle and extract a sample for pathological examination. And we rule the probability of cancer.

What is thyroid cancer? 

Thyroid cancers are of many types. However, the most common type of thyroid cancer in the general population is Papillary carcinoma. It is a low-grade malignancy. It is curable if the doctors remove it in time. 

Then, with the help of medicines and treatment, one can lead a happy life. Thyroid cancer is more commonly present in females and at an early age.

Signs and Symptoms of thyroid cancer

In its early stage, it appears to be a hard nodule, whereas the benign nodule isn’t that hard and relatively soft. The cancerous nodules are hard, and we often see multiple neck nodes. So the presence of multiple nodes in the neck is the most common sign of papillary carcinoma. 

Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

We need to do an ultrasound, FNAC and even CT-Scan for thyroid cancer to plan further treatment. 

Treatment of thyroid cancer

After the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, the primary treatment is surgery. But, first, we need to remove thyroid cancer entirely. In addition, we need to remove the nodes present in the neck.

After the patient heals, the surgery effect completes, and their wound heals, we further run some tests on the patients. In addition, we keep tabs on specific tumor markers that often circulate in the blood, and we detect their recurrence by tumor markers. In a maximum number of cases, we don’t witness the recurrence of thyroid cancer, which is curable. 

However, if we don’t obliterate the thyroid entirely or if there is a presence of small nodules, we prefer radiotherapy or giving radioactive iodine to remove the residual tumor. This was all about thyroid cancer. 

Bening Nodules

Apart from thyroid cancer, there is another common problem of thyroid, which we often call benign nodules, more commonly known as a colloid in everyday language. We mostly see this in older ladies with large necks. 

Causes 

The most common reason for this is iodine deficiency. Iodine deficiency leads to the formation of the excessive thyroid gland, and it causes a significant mass effect on the neck. 

Complications 

It eventually grows large, but we shouldn’t let goiter grow to such a large size. We should treat goiter at an early stage, and as far as treatment is concerned, we need to operate it only. However, goiter is a very slow-growing tumor; if the patient wishes, they can permanently remove it. 

Some doctors treat this like low-grade thyroxine or low-grade potassium hydroxide liquid. After treatment, it gradually shrinks. But if it has grown large, we must ultimately remove it. 

Thank you.

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