What is Bartholin Cyst (बार्थोलिन सिस्ट)? What is the bartholin cyst treatment? What causes Bartholin Cyst?

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  • 4 months ago
Dr. Heena Chawla
Gynecology

What is Bartholin Cyst (बार्थोलिन सिस्ट) and its treatment? What causes Bartholin Cyst? 

In this video, SimpliHealth expert, Dr. Heena Chawla, Consultant Gynecologist at Apollo clinic and CHD City hospital Chandigarh, is talking about what is Bartholin Cyst (बार्थोलिन सिस्ट) and bartholin cyst symptoms, causes and treatments. 

First, we need to understand the meaning of the term Bartholin Cyst. Any water-filled clot is termed a cyst in medical language. 

WHAT IS BARTHOLIN CYST (बार्थोलिन सिस्ट)?

Bartholins are two pea-sized glands present at the vaginal opening. Their function is to maintain lubrication in the vagina. These glands release their secretion by their duct. 

Now, if there is a blockage in this duct, these secretions will not find their way out and will keep accumulating in the gland. Eventually, this would result in the formation of a cyst. This type of cyst is sized approximately from 1 to 10cm which means it may take the shape of a golf ball or lemon from a pea. 

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATION ASSOCIATED WITH BARTHOLIN CYST?

Often patients come to the emergency with the indication of intense pain. The most important symptom of this cyst is severe pain in the cyst. Apart from pain patient may feel uncomfortable while rising, walking, or sitting. If there is an infection in the water-filled cyst, then pus formation is possible. Due to this, a patient may have a fever that may last longer. Often patients ask in OPD why these types of cysts occur.

WHAT IS THE PROBABLE CAUSE?

Usually, we see this type of cyst at 20-30 years of age. 

The reason may include:

  • Any injury or trauma
  • Some infections like Escherichia coli, Gonorrhea infection, or Chlamydial infection 

The patient often comes and asks whether stress is the reason for having Bartholin’s cyst. I would say no, stress doesn’t play any role in forming these cysts, but yes, it may lead to hormonal imbalance. But we can’t directly link it to the Bartholin cyst. 

Also, many times, patients ask if hormonal imbalance results in a Bartholin cyst? No, it’s not like that. 

Sexual Transmission 

Also, sometimes patients are in dilemma that Bartholin cyst is a sexually transmitted disease. No Bartholin cyst is not itself a sexually transmitted disease, but the causative bacteria like Chlamydia or Gonorrhea are sexually transmitted bacterial infections. But we can’t directly say that Bartholin cyst is sexually transmitted, then it’s not like that.

The second thing is that Bartholin cyst presents itself one side at a time. In a very rare case, we see its occurrence on both sides. Otherwise, it is seen on one side at a time.

HOW DO WE DIAGNOSE BARTHOLIN CYST?

Clinical examination performed by the doctor usually makes the diagnosis of this type of cyst. Depending upon the size of the cyst, symptoms, intensity of pain, and fever, a treatment plan is prepared. 

If you are above the age of 60 years, maybe the doctor would recommend a biopsy for a Bartholin cyst to rule out the possibility of cancerous growth. However, the occurrence of this type of cancer is less than 1 %. 

Sometimes this Bartholin cyst may rupture on its own. Small material oozes out as it enlarges and ruptures, including pus, bacteria, mucus, or blood. Often patients come with the symptoms of a ruptured cyst. 

WHAT ARE ITS TREATMENT PROCEDURES?

If we talk about its treatment, if the size of the cyst is very small, then we don’t require to do many things. Usually, the doctor advises the patients to have a Sitz bath at their house. The patient can take a Sitz bath by filling the tub with lukewarm water of approx 3-4 inches and sitting in it for 15-20 minutes. 

Apart from this, the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory and painkillers to the patient to reduce the cyst symptoms. 

However, if it’s a large-sized cyst or pus formation or you are having intense pain, the doctor may advise you for surgery. In surgery, we do marsupialization these days. In this technique, we drain all the cyst contents and keep the cyst open so that secretions don’t get clogged, they come out, and the wound heals faster. 

But then also in 35-40% of cases, there is recurrent cyst formation, and the patient may require multiple siting of marsupialization. In this case, the doctor needs to remove the Bartholin gland, which is commonly called Bartholin gland excision. 

For this, the patients need to get hospitalized for one day at least. 

The procedure is performed under anesthesia, and technically it’s a little more complex than marsupialization. However, the procedure can be quickly done in patients with recurrent Bartholin cysts. 

HOW CAN WE PREVENT IT?

For its prevention, we must take care of vaginal hygiene and practice safe sex. If you have any issues, you may consult your doctor, get a diagnosis and start an early treatment under the supervision of the doctor.

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