Diabetes & Eye Problems: डायबिटीज(मधुमेह) से होने वाली आँखों की बीमारी

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  • 7 months ago
Dr. Anin Sethi
Ophthalmology

Diabetes and Eye Problems: डायबिटीज(मधुमेह) से होने वाली आँखों की बीमारी

Hello, I am Dr. Anin Sethi and today, we will discuss Diabetes and Eye Problems(डायबिटीज(मधुमेह) से होने वाली आँखों की बीमारी), whether we can improve vision in a patient with diabetes by controlling his sugar level. And along with this, we will also be discussing the effects the sugar medications have on your vision. 

Diabetes is a disease that needs lifelong care are: 

  • Type 1 Diabetes 
  • Type 2 Diabetes

In this, the ability of the body to control glucose reduces, and the hormone called insulin in the body reduces or is not being secreted. 

When the glucose level in the blood rises, it starts depositing this glucose in different parts of the body. And because of this, the protein in that organ is modified, which adversely affects the working of the organ. So, for example, in the eyes, we have diabetic retinopathy, or in other words, the sugar level is harming the retina of the eye. 

Two things happen here:

  1. The center of the retina called the macula can start accumulating water, which we call macular edema. 
  2. The other thing is that new veins start forming in the retina, which we call New vascularisation, a part of diabetic retinopathy.

So these are the two types of changes in the retina because of diabetes.

Macular Edema, which is swelling in the retina, causes vision loss. New vascularization also causes vision loss due to inflammation in the retina. And it can also cause the retina to shrink.  

The recommended blood glucose level is between 130 to 180. And we should always maintain the blood glucose level. So regular and periodic blood tests are very important.  The hemoglobin levels should be kept at less than 7%. If we maintain this level, the swelling in the retina can be cured, and it also helps with other symptoms of diabetic retinopathy. 

Diabetic Retinopathy(डायबिटिक रेटिनोपैथी)

We will also tackle other problems, like blood pressure. Increased blood pressure can aid diabetic retinopathy(डायबिटिक रेटिनोपैथी). Therefore the blood pressure must be maintained. The category of medications called ACE inhibitors Ex. Captopril and Enalapril are observed to lower the effects of diabetes on the eyes. The other thing is lipids levels of fat in the blood. We should also keep the fat levels in the blood low. The lipid profile should also be kept normal. The cholesterol level in the blood should be maintained and controlled.

The rise in the level of cholesterol in the blood is called dyslipidemia, which has different components, LDL, VLDL, HDL. The imbalance of these levels increases the effect of diabetes on the retina. Therefore the blood lipid levels should also be kept in check.  The third thing is hemoglobin. If your hemoglobin level is less, it may affect the retina and increase the effects of diabetes. Therefore one’s hemoglobin should be checked. 

And finally, it is essential to know that there are certain medicines that can increase the inflammation in the retina. For example, the category called Glitazones, Pioglitazone Rosiglitazone, can increase the inflammation in your retina. Even though the use of these medicines is reduced now, it is important for you to know that it accumulates water in the organs and, therefore, accumulates water in the retina. 

It is observed that after stopping the use of glitazones, the swelling in the retina gets better. So you must also consult your doctor and stop taking glitazones. 

Bottom line

If you have diabetes, you should get regular eye checkups. The leading cause of vision loss here is due to inflammation in the retina. It can be treated by controlling sugar levels. But if this does not help with the swelling, the eye specialist would give you some other treatment, like injections and lasers. Along with sugar levels, we should also keep our lipid levels in control. Hemoglobin and blood pressure should be treated alongside this. 

I hope it was helpful. Thank you. 

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