Cervix Stenosis: Can closed cervix cause infertility?

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Dr. Heena Chawla
Gynecology

Cervix Stenosis: Can closed cervix cause infertility?

In this video SimpliHealth expert gynaecologist Dr. Heena Chawla from Apollo Clinic Chandigarh is talking about infertile couples where a closed cervix  is considered a fundamental reason for this issue.

Cervix Stenosis

Cervix is the Mouth of the uterus. The mouth of the uterus is very much significant for pregnancy. Approximately according to our experts, 10% of cervical factors contribute to pregnancy failure. Cervix is considered a gateway. Cervix acts as a gate to ascend the sperms into the uterus. What happens during ovulation meaning when the egg is released from the ovary before that, the cervical mucus gets very thin because of estrogen actions and release of estrogenic hormones in large amounts, which leads to thinning of mucus which allows the sperms to ascend quickly inside the uterus. 

After post ovulation  i.e after ovulation, the estrogen level goes down, and the progesterone goes up, due to which mucus gets thick, failing in ascending of the sperms. So the cervix is very important because sperms get a proper way to ascend upwards. The eggs are released from the ovary, and the sperms reach the eggs. 

They both get fused and fertilised in the fallopian tubes completing the fertilisation process. Cervical stenosis, or if the mouth of the cervix is closed very tightly, then sperm don’t find a way to go upwards. 

What condition can this happen? 

The first and foremost condition is that one has undergone any D & C, which is termed cleaning in everyday language. If there has been a Dilatation and Curettage, in these cases, the cervix is closed very tightly, or one has undergone cervix biopsy, especially Cone biopsy. In this, biopsies are performed in those cases where there is an abnormal Pap smear. If any abnormality is seen in Pap smear, we do a cervical biopsy, or cone biopsy is needed. The second most important reason for closed cervix is infections. 

There are some chronic infections due to which the cervix’s mucus gets damaged. Hence sperms don’t get a favourable environment to move upwards. In a few cases, anti-sperm antibodies are produced, which work against the sperms. So if these are produced again, sperm doesn’t get the space. 

Lastly, if you may have a genetic abnormality, they have a closed cervix or tightly closed stenosis, cervix occurs. For its diagnosis, the doctor takes a complete history of the patient. Apart from this one examination in simple language, the internal examination by a gynaecologist is very important Third, one ultrasound is done through which we know the cervix parameters. if we say that there is an infection or have taken any old biopsy. Hence, we try to treat them in these cases by prescribing antibiotics. 

Few medications are given for anti-sperm antibodies to make the cervix environment favourable. And suppose if we are not getting help from any medication, we use assisted reproductive techniques, which is IUI, in which we directly insert the sperms into the endometrial uterine cavity bypassing the cervix entirely. So if you are suffering from any of these problems, you must meet your gynaecologist, get your examination done, and discuss your treatment options.

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